SINEUPs are the first and only tool available so far that use non-coding RNAs to universally enhance translation of any protein of interest. In this context, SINEUPs will be the opposite counterpart of small interference and micro RNAs.
SINEUPs are non-coding RNA molecules that form partial antisense hybrids with target protein-coding mRNA, stimulating their translation to enhance protein production. SINEUPs are made of two functional domains: one that overlaps with the protein-coding RNA (Target Antisense Sequence - TAS) and the other one that functions as activator of translation (Protein Activation Sequence - PAS).

Table 1

HOW to SINEUP your target gene

1) Design a Target Antisense Sequence antisense to your gene of interest around the ATG and clone into a SINEUP vector
2) Get a universal SINEUP in combination with SINEUP-based protein-coding cloning vector
3) Transfect SINEUP into your desired cell line or in vivo
          i. together with your gene of interest
          ii. alone to increase endogenous protein levels.
4) Get more of your protein product.

WHY SINEUP your target gene

1) SINEUPs can increase up to 5 to 10 times the production of your protein.
2) SINEUPs can be synthesized for any application.
3) SINEUPs decrease the cost of protein production.


Katayama S. et al., Antisense transcription in the mammalian transcriptome. Science (2005) 309: 1564-6.

Carninci P. et al., The transcriptional landscape of the mammalian genome, Science (2005) 309: 1559-63.

Illustration by Davide Zarli